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Idaho

Idaho

Official language(s) English
 

Idaho is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. The state's largest city and capital is Boise. Residents are called "Idahoans." Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890 as the 43rd state.

Idaho is a mostly mountainous state, with an area larger than all of New England. It is landlocked, surrounded by the states of Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Montana and the Canadian Province of British Columbia. However, the network of dams and locks on the Columbia River and Snake River make the city of Lewiston the farthest inland seaport on the west coast of the continental United States.

To residents of the state and regular visitors, Idaho is regarded as a highly outdoors-oriented community. Central Idaho is home to one of North America's oldest ski resorts, Sun Valley, where the world's first chairlift was installed. Snow sports are keystones of Idaho's identity, with a ski resort near almost every urban area. Whitewater rafting and kayaking are among the state's major pastimes. Hell's Canyon and the Salmon River boast some of North America's finest whitewater, with the nearby town of Riggins, ID serving as the state's informal whitewater capital. According to the US Census Bureau, in 2009 the population for Idaho was estimated to be 1,545,801. The state's postal abbreviation is ID. Idaho's nickname is the Gem State because nearly every known gem has been found there. In addition, Idaho is one of only two places in the world where star garnets can be found (the other is the Himalaya Mountains, in India), and is the only place six pointed star garnets have been found. The state motto is Esto Perpetua (Latin for "Let it be forever").

Idaho is the 14th largest state by land area.


Geography
 
Digitally colored elevation map of Idaho.
Idaho Population Density Map
Sixty percent of Idaho's land is held by the National Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management, and it leads the nation in forest service land as a percentage of total area.
Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains about 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Boise, Idaho.
Crooked Creek in Gospel Hump Wilderness, Idaho
The Palouse region of North Idaho.
A scenic part of the Snake River in Idaho Falls.Further information: List of Idaho counties
Idaho borders six states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west, Nevada and Utah are to the south, and Montana and Wyoming are to the east. Idaho also shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres (9,300 km²), the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with abundant natural resources and scenic areas. The state has snow-capped mountain ranges, rapids, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of Snake River rush through Hells Canyon, the deepest canyon in the United States.

Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than that of Niagara Falls. The major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, and the Payette River. The Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat. The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon.

Idaho's highest point is Borah Peak, 12,662 ft (3,859 m), in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest point, 710 ft (216 m), is in Lewiston, where the Clearwater River joins the Snake River and continues into Washington. The Sawtooth Range is often considered Idaho's most famous mountain range. Other mountain ranges in Idaho include the Bitterroot Range, the White Cloud Mountains, the Lost River Range, the Clearwater Mountains, and the Salmon River Mountains.

 
Map of IdahoSouthern Idaho, including the Boise metropolitan area, Idaho Falls, Pocatello, and Twin Falls are in the Mountain Time Zone. (A legislative oddity (15 U.S.C. ch.6 §264) theoretically placed this region in the Central Time Zone, but this error was corrected with a 2007 Amendment.) Areas north of the Salmon River, including Coeur d'Alene, Moscow, Lewiston, and Sandpoint are in the Pacific Time Zone and revolve commercially and culturally around Seattle through the second largest city, Spokane, Washington.

Climate

Idaho has much variation in its climate. Although the state's western border is located about 350 miles (560 km) from the Pacific Ocean, the maritime influence is still felt in Idaho, especially in the winter when cloud cover, humidity, and precipitation are at their highest points. This influence has a moderating effect in the winter where temperatures are not as low as would otherwise be expected for a northern state with a mostly elevated altitude. The maritime influence is lowest in the southeastern part of the state where the precipitation patterns are often reversed, with wetter summers and drier winters, and seasonal temperature differences more extreme, showing a more continental climate.

Climate in Idaho can be hot, although extended periods over 100 °F (38 °C) for the maximum temperature are rare, except for the lowest point in elevation, Lewiston, which correspondingly sees very little snow. Hot summer days are tempered by the low relative humidity and cooler evenings during summer months since, for most of the state, the highest diurnal difference in temperature is often in the summer. Winters can be cold, although extended periods of bitter cold weather below zero are unusual. This is what led the railroad tycoon Harriman family to develop the most famous ski resort, Sun Valley.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Idaho Cities.
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Boise 37/24 44/29 54/34 62/39 71/47 80/54 89/60 88/60 77/51 64/41 48/32 37/24
Lewiston 39/28 46/31 54/36 62/41 70/47 78/54 88/59 88/59 77/51 62/41 47/34 39/28
Pocatello 32/16 39/21 48/27 58/33 68/39 78/46 88/51 87/50 76/42 62/33 44/25 34/17
 
Lakes
Alturas Lake
Bear Lake (Idaho-Utah)
Hayden Lake
Henry's Lake
Lake Cascade
Lake Coeur d'Alene
Lake Lowell
Lake Walcott
Payette Lake (McCall)
Pend Oreille
Little Redfish Lake
Pettit Lake
Priest Lake
Redfish Lake
Sawtooth Lake
Stanley Lake
Warm Lake
Hidden Lake
History

History of Idaho
Humans may have been present in the Idaho area as long as 14,500 years ago. Excavations at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls in 1959 revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America. Native American tribes predominant in the area included the Nez Perce in the north and the Northern and Western Shoshone in the south.

Idaho, as part of the Oregon Country, was claimed by both the United States and Great Britain until the United States gained undisputed jurisdiction in 1846. From 1843 to 1849 present-day Idaho was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon. When Oregon became a state, what is now Idaho was in what was left of the original Oregon Territory not part of the new state, and designated as the Washington Territory.

Between then and the creation of the Idaho Territory on July 4, 1863 at Lewiston, parts of the present-day state were included in the Oregon, Washington, and Dakota Territories. The new territory included present-day Idaho and Montana and most of Wyoming. The Lewis and Clark expedition crossed Idaho in 1805 on the way to the Pacific and in 1806 on the return, largely following the Clearwater River both directions. The first non-indigenous settlement was Kullyspell House, established on the shore of Lake Pend Oreille for fur trading in 1809 by David Thompson of the North West Company. In 1812 Donald Mackenzie, working for the Pacific Fur Company at the time, established a post on the lower Clearwater River near present-day Lewiston. This post, known as "MacKenzie's Post" or "Clearwater", operated until the Pacific Fur Company was bought out by the North West Company in 1813, after which it was abandoned. The first attempts at organized communities, within the present borders of Idaho, were established in 1860. The first permanent, substantial incorporated community was Lewiston in 1861.

After some tribulation as a territory, including the illegal and chaotic transfer of the territorial capital from Lewiston in December 1864 to Boise in January 1865, disenfranchisement of Mormon polygamists upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1877, and a federal attempt to split the territory between Washington Territory which gained statehood in 1889, a year before Idaho, and the state of Nevada which had been a state since 1863, Idaho achieved statehood in 1890. The economy of the state, which had been primarily supported by metal mining, shifted towards agriculture, forest products and tourism.

In recent years, Idaho has expanded its commercial base as a tourism and agricultural state to include science and technology industries. Science and technology have become the largest single economic center (over 25% of the state's total revenue) within the state and are greater than agriculture, forestry and mining combined.

The Idaho State Historical Society and numerous local historical societies and museums preserve and promote Idaho’s cultural heritage.

Origin of name
 
Lake Coeur d'Alene in North Idaho.Idaho was possibly named as the result of a hoax (the so-called "Idahoax") although this is disputed. The exact origin of the name remains a mystery.In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho," which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains." Willing later claimed that he had made up the name himself.Congress ultimately decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs".

However, the name "Idaho" did not go away. The same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, which was launched on the Columbia River in 1860. It is unclear whether the steamship was named before or after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, a portion of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.

Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account that the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how".

The name "Idaho" may be derived from the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́" which means "enemy." The Comanches used this word to refer to the Idaho Territory.

An excerpt from an Idaho History Textbook:

"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation. The word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down". The second is "dah" which is the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark (!) does in the English language. The Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", and the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain".
Chief Joseph Seltice, of the Coeur d'Alene Tribal Nation, posits another possible origin of the name. In his history of the tribe, Saga of the Coeur d'Alene Indians, he writes:

Some sources claim that the name "Idaho" comes from an Indian word, "Ee-dah-how," meaning "Gem of the Mountains." This expression may have come from some other Tribe, and it would have a different meaning for them than it would for the Coeur d'Alenes.
As the Coeur d'Alenes understood the word "Idaho," it would be more correctly pronounced "Ah-d'Hoo." It means "greetings by surprise," indicating friendship, but surprise.
The first syllable conveys to the mind, "All are welcome, from wherever you come; but keep the friendly peace. We welcome you with out-stretched arms, and this entitles us to permanent friendship."
The last syllable is a surprise and exclamation point. The expression means that all are welcome, "though we are surprised to see so many different strangers. The first dawn of day welcomes you as the sun rises." This expression was used by many of the Coeur d'Alenes on the Bitterroot Mountains to greet all who come.
So to all who read these words: "Welcome, with open arms! We're just surprised that there are so many of you!"

Demographics
Historical populations
Census Pop.   %±
1870 14,999  —
1880 32,610  117.4%
1890 88,548  171.5%
1900 161,772  82.7%
1910 325,594  101.3%
1920 431,866  32.6%
1930 445,032  3.0%
1940 524,873  17.9%
1950 588,637  12.1%
1960 667,191  13.3%
1970 712,567  6.8%
1980 943,935  32.5%
1990 1,006,749  6.7%
2000 1,293,953  28.5%
Est. 2009[1] 1,545,801  19.5%
As of 2005, Idaho has an estimated population of 1,429,096, which is an increase of 33,956, or 2.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 135,140, or 10.4%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 58,884 people (that is 111,131 births minus 52,247 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 75,795 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 14,522 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 61,273 people.

This made Idaho the sixth fastest-growing state after Arizona, Nevada, Florida, Georgia, and Utah. From 2004 to 2005, Idaho grew the third-fastest, surpassed only by Nevada and Arizona.

Nampa, the state's second largest city, has experienced particularly strong growth in recent years. According to census estimates Nampa has grown 22.1% to nearly 65,000 residents between 2000 and 2003. As of 2007, the population in Nampa was estimated at 84,000. Growth of 5% or more over the same period has also been observed in Caldwell, Coeur d'Alene, Meridian, Post Falls and Twin Falls.

Since 1990, Idaho's population has increased by 386,000 (38%).

The Boise Metropolitan Area (officially known as the Boise City-Nampa, ID Metropolitan Statistical Area) is Idaho's largest metropolitan area. Other metropolitan areas in order of size are Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Falls, Pocatello and Lewiston.

As of 2006, six official micropolitan statistical areas are based in Idaho. Twin Falls is the largest of these.

The center of population of Idaho is located in Custer County, in the town of Stanley.

Demographics of Idaho (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 96.99% 0.65% 2.14% 1.36% 0.23%
2000 (Hispanic only) 7.53% 0.10% 0.28% 0.07% 0.03%
2005 (total population) 96.81% 0.84% 2.05% 1.48% 0.22%
2005 (Hispanic only) 8.70% 0.17% 0.27% 0.08% 0.03%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 10.24% 42.33% 5.93% 20.25% 6.65%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 8.78% 33.87% 5.74% 19.96% 7.09%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 27.65% 89.80% 7.17% 25.37% 3.90%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

The largest reported ancestries in the state are: German (18.9%), English (18.1%), Irish (10%), American (8.4%), Norwegian (3.6%), and Swedish (3.5%).

Religion
 
A church in Idaho City.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Idaho Falls Temple.According to the 15th annual Idaho Public Policy study (2004) by the Social Science Research Center at BSU, the ambiguous religious affiliations of Idahoans break down roughly as follows.

Protestant – 29.3%
LDS (Mormon) – 22.8%
Catholic – 14.3%
Non-Denominational Christian – 13.6%
None – 12.7%
Other – 7.2%
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 311,425; (2008: 406,764) the Roman Catholic Church with 130,847; the Assemblies of God with 18,745; and the United Methodist Church with 17,683.

Economy
 
Idaho State Quarter
American Falls DamGross state product for 2004 was US$43.6 billion. The per capita income for 2004 was US$26,881. Idaho is an important agricultural state, producing nearly one-third of the potatoes grown in the United States. All three varieties of wheat, Dark Northern Spring, Hard Red and Soft White are grown in the state. Nez Perce County is considered a premier Soft White growing locale.

Important industries in Idaho are food processing, lumber and wood products, machinery, chemical products, paper products, electronics manufacturing, silver and other mining, and tourism. The world's largest factory for barrel cheese, the raw product for processed cheese is located in Gooding, Idaho. It has a capacity of 120,000 metric tons per year of barrel cheese and belongs to the Glanbia group. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a government lab for nuclear energy research, is also an important part of the eastern Idaho economy. Idaho also is home to three facilities of Anheuser-Busch which provide a large part of the malt for breweries located across the nation.

Locally, a variety of industries are important. Outdoor recreation is a common example ranging from numerous snowmobile and downhill and cross-country ski areas in winter to the evolution of a Lewiston as a retirement community based on mild winters, dry year around climate and one of the lowest median wind velocities anywhere, combined with the rivers for a wide variety of activities. Other examples would be ATK Corporation operates three ammunition and ammunition components plants in Lewiston. Two are sporting and one is defense contract. The Lewis-Clark Valley has an additional independent ammunition components manufacturer and the Chipmunk rifle factory. Four of the world's six welded aluminum jet boat (for running river rapids) manufacturers are in the Lewiston-Clarkston, WA valley. Wine grapes were grown between Kendrick and Julietta in the Idaho Panhandle by the French Rothchilds until Prohibition. In keeping with this, while there are no large wineries or breweries in Idaho, there are numerous and growing numbers of award winning boutique wineries and microbreweries in the northern part of the state.

Today, the largest industry in Idaho is the science and technology sector. It accounts for over 25% of the State's total revenue and 70%+ of the State's exports (in dollars). Idaho's industrial economy is growing, with high-tech products leading the way. Since the late 1970s, Boise has emerged as a center for semiconductor manufacturing. Boise is the home of Micron Technology Inc., the only U.S. manufacturer of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips. Micron at one time manufactured desktop computers, but with very limited success. Hewlett-Packard has operated a large plant in Boise since the 1970s, which is devoted primarily to LaserJet printers production. Dell, Inc. operates a major customer support call center in Twin Falls. ON Semiconductor, whose worldwide headquarter locates in Pocatello, is a widely recognized innovator in modern integrated mixed-signal semiconductor products, mixed-signal foundry services, and structured digital products. Coldwater Creek, a women's clothing retailer, is headquartered in Sandpoint. Fortune 500 Sun Microsystems has two offices in Boise and a parts depot in Pocatello. Sun brings $4M in annual salaries and over $300M of revenue to the state each year.

A number of Fortune 500 companies started in or trace their roots to Idaho, including JC Penney (as The Golden Rule) in Twin Falls, Safeways in American Falls, Albertsons in Boise, JR Simplot across southern Idaho, Potlatch Corp. in Lewiston and Zimmerly Air Transport in Lewiston-Clarkston was one of the five companies in the merger centered around Varney Flying Service of Pasco, Washington, which became United Air Lines and subsequently Varney Air Group that became Continental Airlines.

The state personal income tax ranges from 1.6% to 7.8% in eight income brackets. Idahoans may apply for state tax credits for taxes paid to other states, as well as for donations to Idaho state educational entities and some nonprofit youth and rehabilitation facilities.

The state sales tax is 6% with a very limited, selective local option up to 6.5%. Sales tax applies to the sale, rental or lease of tangible personal property and some services. Food is taxed, but prescription drugs are not. Hotel, motel, and campground accommodations are taxed at a higher rate (7% to 11%). Some jurisdictions impose local option sales tax.

Idaho has a state gambling lottery which contributed $333.5 million in payments to all Idaho public schools and Idaho higher education from 1990 - 2006.

 Energy
 
Electricity Generation in IdahoThe energy landscape of Idaho is favorable to the development of renewable energy systems. The state is rich in renewable energy resources but has limited fossil fuel resources. The Snake River Plain and smaller river basins provide Idaho with some of the best hydroelectric power resources in the nation and its geologically active mountain areas have significant geothermal power and wind power potential. These realities have shaped much of the state’s current energy landscape.

The state’s numerous river basins allow hydroelectric power plants to provide 556 thousand MWh, which amounts to about three-fourths of Idaho’s electricity output. Washington State provides most of the natural gas used in Idaho through one of the two major pipeline systems supplying the state. Although the state relies on out-of-state sources for its entire natural gas supply, it uses natural gas-fired plants to generate 127 thousand MWh, or about ten percent of its output. Coal-fired generation and the state’s small array of wind turbines supplies the remainder of the state’s electricity output. The state produces 739 thousand MWh but still needs to import half of its electricity from out-of-state to meet demand.

While Idaho’s 515 trillion Btu total energy consumption is relatively low compared to other states and represents just 0.5% of United States consumption, the state also has the nation’s 11th smallest population, 1.5 million, so its per capita energy consumption of 352 million Btu is currently just above the national average of 333 million Btu. As the 13th largest state in land area, distance creates the additional problem of "line loss". When the length of an electrical transmission line is doubled, the resistance to an electric current passing through it is also doubled.

In addition, Idaho also has the 6th fastest growing population in the United States with the population expected to increase by 31% from 2008 to 2030. This projected increase in population will contribute to a 42% increase in demand by 2030, further straining Idaho’s finite hydroelectric resources. Given that Idaho has no crude oil reserves and a limited supply of natural gas, the state’s most realistic method of meeting this projected increase in demand is to develop its ample renewable resources or nuclear.[citation needed]

Transportation

List of Idaho State Highways
 
The current state license plate design, modified since its introduction in 1991.Major highways

 
Interstate 15.
US Highway 95.Idaho is among the few states in the nation without a major freeway linking the two largest metropolitan areas of Boise in the south and Coeur d'Alene in the north. US-95 links the two ends of the state, but like many other highways in Idaho, it is badly in need of repair and upgrade. In 2007, the Idaho Transportation Department stated that the state's highway infrastructure faces a $200 million per year shortfall in maintenance and upgrades. Interstate 84 is the main highway linking the Southeast and Southwest portions of the state, along with Interstate 86 and Interstate 15.

Major federal aid highways in Idaho:

North

 U.S. Highway 2
 U.S. Highway 12
 North/South

 U.S. Highway 95
 U.S. Highway 93
 Interstate 15
 West/East

 U.S. Highway 20
 U.S. Highway 26
 U.S. Highway 30
 Interstate 84
 Interstate 86
 Interstate 90
  Southwest
 Interstate 184
 

Air Travel

Major airports include the Boise Airport serving the southwest region of Idaho, and the Spokane International Airport (located in Spokane, Washington), which serves northern Idaho. Other airports with scheduled service are the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport serving the Palouse; the Lewiston-Nez Perce County Airport, serving the Lewis-Clark Valley and north central Idaho; The Magic Valley Regional Airport in Twin Falls; the Idaho Falls Regional Airport; and the Pocatello Regional Airport.

Rail Travel
Idaho is served by two transcontinental railroads. The Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) connects North Idaho with Seattle, Portland and Spokane to the west, and Minneapolis and Chicago to the east. The BNSF travels through Kootenai, Bonner and Boundary Counties. The Union Pacific Railroad crosses southern Idaho traveling between Portland, Green River, WY, and Ogden, Utah and serves Boise, Nampa, Twin Falls, and Pocatello. Amtrak's Empire Builder crosses northern Idaho, with its only stop being in Sandpoint. There has been a push recently to return Amtrak service to southern Idaho as well.

Ports

The Port of Lewiston is the farthest inland Pacific port on the west coast. A series of dams and locks on the Snake River and Columbia River facilitate barge travel from here to Portland, where goods are loaded on ocean-going vessels.

Law and government
 
State capitol in Boise State Constitution
The Constitution of Idaho is roughly modeled on the national constitution with several additions. The constitution defines the form and function of the state government, and may be amended through plebiscite. Notably, the state constitution presently requires the state government to maintain a balanced budget. As result, Idaho has limited debt (construction bonds, etc).

 Idaho Code
All of Idaho's state laws are contained in the Idaho Code. The code is amended through the Legislature with the approval of the Governor.

[edit] State government
The constitution of Idaho provides for three branches of government: the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Idaho has a bicameral legislature, elected from 35 legislative districts, each represented by one senator and two representatives. Idaho still operates under its original (1889) state constitution.

Since 1946, statewide elected constitutional officers have been elected to four-year terms. They include: Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Controller (Auditor before 1994), Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Last contested in 1966, Inspector of Mines was an original elected constitutional office. Afterward it was an appointed position and ultimately done away with entirely in 1974.

Idaho's government has an alcohol monopoly.

Executive Branch

Further information: List of Idaho Governors
Further information: Lieutenant Governor of Idaho
Further information: Secretary of State of Idaho
The governor of Idaho serves a four-year term, and is elected during what is nationally referred to as midterm elections. As such, the governor is not elected in the same election year as the president of the United States. The current governor is Republican C. L. "Butch" Otter, who was elected in 2006.

Legislative Branch

Idaho Legislature

Idaho's legislature is part-time. However, the session may be extended if necessary, and often is. Because of this, Idaho's legislators are considered "citizen legislators", meaning that their position as a legislator is not their main occupation.

Terms for both the Senate and House of Representatives are two years. Legislative elections occur every even numbered year.

The Idaho Legislature has been continuously controlled by the Republican Party since the late 1950s, although Democratic legislators are routinely elected from Boise, Pocatello, Blaine County and the northern Panhandle.

See also List of Idaho senators and representatives

Judicial Branch
Main article: Courts of Idaho
The highest court in Idaho is the Idaho Supreme Court. There is also an intermediate appellate court, the Idaho Court of Appeals, which hears cases assigned to it from the Supreme Court. The state's District Courts serdistricts.

Counties

Idaho is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. As of 1919 there were 44 counties in the state, ranging in size from 410 to 8,502 square miles (1,062 to 22,020 square kilometers).

County name   County seat   Year founded   Population 2008 Est.   Poulation Percentage   Area (sq. m.)   Area Percentage  
Ada Boise 1864 380,920 25.00 % 1,060 1.21 %
Adams Council 1911 3,499 00.23 % 1,370 1.57 %
Bannock Pocatello 1893 80,812 05.30 % 1,147 1.31 %
Bear Lake Paris 1893 5,798 00.38 % 1,049 1.20 %
Benewah St. Maries 1915 9,352 00.61 % 784 0.90 %
Bingham Blackfoot 1885 43,903 02.88 % 2,120 2.42 %
Blaine Hailey 1895 21,731 01.43 % 2,661 3.04 %
Boise Idaho City 1864 7,504 00.49 % 1,907 2.18 %
Bonner Sandpoint 1907 41,168 02.70 % 1,920 2.19 %
Bonneville Idaho Falls 1911 99,135 06.51 % 1,901 2.17 %
Boundary Bonners Ferry 1915 10,962 00.72 % 1,278 1.46 %
Butte Arco 1917 2,751 00.18 % 2,234 2.55 %
Camas Fairfield 1917 1,126 00.07 % 1,079 1.23 %
Canyon Caldwell 1891 183,939 12.07 % 604 0.69 %
Caribou Soda Springs 1919 6,826 00.45 % 1,799 2.06 %
Cassia Burley 1879 21,348 01.40 % 2,580 2.95 %
Clark Dubois 1919 910 00.06 % 1,765 2.02 %
Clearwater Orofino 1911 8,176 00.54 % 2,488 2.84 %
Custer Challis 1881 4,254 00.28 % 4,937 5.64 %
Elmore Mountain Home 1889 28,997 01.90 % 3,101 3.54 %
Franklin Preston 1913 12,454 00.82 % 668 0.76 %
Fremont St. Anthony 1893 12,551 00.82 % 1,896 2.17 %
Gem Emmett 1915 16,513 01.08 % 566 0.65 %
Gooding County, Idaho Gooding 1913 14,295 00.94 % 734 0.84 %
Idaho Grangeville 1861/1864 15,448 01.01 % 8,502 9.71 %
Jefferson Rigby 1913 23,860 01.57 % 1,106 1.26 %
Jerome Jerome 1919 20,468 01.34 % 602 0.69 %
Kootenai Coeur d'Alene 1864 137,475 09.02 % 1,316 1.50 %
Latah Moscow 1886 35,906 02.36 % 1,077 1.23 %
Lemhi Salmon 1869 7,808 00.51 % 4,570 5.22 %
Lewis Nezperce 1911 3,594 00.24 % 480 0.55 %
Lincoln Shoshone 1895 4,503 00.30 % 1,206 1.38 %
Madison Rexburg 1914 37,456 02.46 % 473 0.54 %
Minidoka Rupert 1913 18,645 01.22 % 763 0.87 %
Nez Perce Lewiston 1861/1864 38,975 02.56 % 856 0.98 %
Oneida Malad City 1864 4,130 00.27 % 1,202 1.37 %
Owyhee Murphy 1863 10,877 00.71 % 7,697 8.79 %
Payette Payette 1917 22,966 01.51 % 410 0.47 %
Power American Falls 1913 7,683 00.50 % 1,443 1.65 %
Shoshone Wallace 1861/1864 12,913 00.85 % 2,636 3.01 %
Teton Driggs 1915 8,833 00.58 % 451 0.52 %
Twin Falls Twin Falls 1907 74,284 04.87 % 1,928 2.20 %
Valley Cascade 1917 8,862 00.58 % 3,734 4.27 %
Washington Weiser 1879 10,206 00.67 % 1,474 1.68 %

Total Counties: 44. Total 2008 Population Est.: 1,523,816. Total Area: 87,530 square miles.

Three counties were first designated as such by the Washington Territorial Legislature in 1861; they were subsequently re-designated as Idaho counties in 1864. The 1861 Nez Perce county has since been broken up into Nez Perce, Lewis, Boundary, Benewah, Latah, Kootenai and Clearwater counties.

Idaho license plates begin with a county designation based on the first letter of the county's name. Where a letter is at the beginning of more than one name, the a number accompanies precedingly in alphabetical order. This reflects an anomalous coicidental situation wherein 10 counties begin with B, seven with C and four with L, which is 21 of the 44 counties.

Politics

Presidential elections results Year Republican Democratic
2008 61.5% 403,012 36.1% 236,440
2004 68.38% 409,235 30.26% 181,098
2000 67.17% 336,937 27.64% 138,637
1996 52.18% 256,595 33.65% 165,443
1992 42.03% 202,645 28.42% 137,013
1988 62.08% 253,881 36.01% 147,272
1984 72.36% 297,523 26.39% 108,510
1980 66.46% 290,699 25.19% 110,192
1976 59.88% 204,151 37.12% 126,549
1972 64.24% 199,384 26.04% 80,826
1968 56.79% 165,369 30.66% 89,273
1964 49.08% 143,557 50.92% 148,920
1960 53.78% 161,597 46.22% 138,853
After the Civil War, many Midwestern and Southern Democrats moved to Idaho Territory. As a result, the early territorial legislatures were solidly Democrat-controlled. In contrast, most of the territorial governors were appointed by Republican Presidents and were Republicans themselves. This led to sometimes bitter clashes between the two parties, including a range war with the Democrats backing the sheep herders and the Republicans the cattlemen. That ended with the "Diamondfield" Jack Davis murder trial. In the 1880s, Republicans became more prominent in local politics.

Since statehood, the Republican Party has usually been the dominant party in Idaho, as there was a polar shift in social and political stance between the two parties, when the Democrats became more liberal and the Republicans more conservative. At one time, Idaho had two Democratic parties, one being the mainstream and the other called the Anti-Mormon Democrats, lasting into the early 20th century. In the 1890s and early 1900s, the Populist Party enjoyed prominence while the Democratic Party maintained a brief dominance in the 1930s during the Great Depression. Since World War II, most statewide elected officials have been Republicans. The last time the Democratic Party held a majority in either house of the state legislature was the House of Representatives in 1958 by one seat.

Idaho Congressional delegations have also been generally Republican since statehood. Several Idaho Democrats have had electoral success in the House over the years, but the Senate delegation has been a Republican stronghold for decades. Several Idaho Republicans, including current Senator Mike Crapo, have won reelection to the Senate, but only Frank Church has won reelection as a Democrat. Church was the last Idaho Democrat to win a U.S. Senate race, in 1974. Walt Minnick's 2008 win in the First Congressional District was the state's first Democratic Congressional victory in 16 years.

In modern times, Idaho has been a reliably Republican state in presidential politics as well. It has not supported a Democrat for president since 1964. Even in that election, Lyndon Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater by less than two percentage points. In 2004, Republican George W. Bush carried Idaho by a margin of 38 percentage points and with 68.4% of the vote, winning in 43 of 44 counties. Only Blaine County, which contains the Sun Valley ski resort, supported John Kerry, who owns a home in the area. In 2008 Barack Obama's 36.1 percent showing was the best for a Democratic presidential candidate in Idaho since 1976. However, Republican margins were narrower in 1992 and 1996.

In the 2006 elections, Republicans, led by gubernatorial candidate C. L. "Butch" Otter, won all the state's constitutional offices and retained both of the state's seats in the United States House of Representatives. However, Democrats picked up several seats in the Idaho Legislature, notably in the Boise area.

Republicans lost one of the House seats in 2008 to Minnick, but Republican Jim Risch retained Larry Craig's Senate seat for the GOP by a comfortable margin.

Further information: Political party strength in Idaho

Important cities and towns
Population > 100,000 (urbanized area)

Boise (state capital) - Home of Boise State University
Population > 50,000 (urbanized area)

Idaho Falls - Location of the main offices of the Idaho National Laboratory
Nampa - Home of Northwest Nazarene University
Pocatello - Home of Idaho State University
Meridian - Suburb of Boise, Fastest growing city in Idaho
Population > 30,000 (urbanized area)

Caldwell - Home of the College of Idaho
Coeur d'Alene - Home of North Idaho College, major tourist hub
Lewiston - Home of Lewis-Clark State College, Seaport
Twin Falls - Home of College of Southern Idaho, BASE jumping
Population > 10,000 (urbanized area)

Ammon - Suburb of Idaho Falls
Blackfoot - Home of the Idaho Potato Museum
Burley
Eagle - Suburb of Boise
Garden City - Suburb of Boise
Hayden -Suburb of Coeur d'Alene
Kuna - Suburb of Boise
Moscow - Home of the University of Idaho
Mountain Home - US Airforce Base
Post Falls - Suburb of Coeur d'Alene
Rexburg - Home of Brigham Young University-Idaho
 Smaller Towns and Cities

American Falls - First town to be entirely relocated
Arco - First city to be lit by electricity generated from a nuclear power plant
Bonners Ferry - Northernmost major town in Idaho
Buhl, Idaho - Trout Capitol of the World.
City of Rocks - First rockclimbing station in Idaho
Driggs - skiing (Grand Targhee)
Eden
Emmett
Greenleaf
Fruitland
Filer - Suburb of Twin Falls.
Hazelton
Homedale - town's name was chosen from a hat
Island Park - snowmobiling, world-class fishing
Jerome
Kimberly - Suburb of Twin Falls
Kellogg - skiing ( Silver Mountain Ski Resort)
Malad City
McCall - Skiing Brundage Ski Resort and Recreation Payette Lake
Middleton
Montpelier bank robbed by the wild bunch
Mullan - silver/lead/zinc mining
New Meadows
New Plymouth - first planned community in Idaho, third west of the Rocky Mountains
Notus
Orofino - County seat of Clearwater County, site longest strait axis dam, fishing
Paris, Idaho - County seat of Bear Lake County
Parma, Idaho
Payette - County seat of Payette County
Plummer- CDA tribal headquarters
Rupert- County Seat of Minidoka County
Rigby - Television birthplace
Salmon, Idaho - gateway to river of no return
Sandpoint - Skiing Schweitzer Mountain Ski Resort and Recrecation Lake Pend Oreille.
Soda Springs - US's only captive geyser
St. Anthony - sand dunes and several lava tubes
St. Mariescounty seat
Stanley, Idaho - heart of the sawtooths
Star, Idaho
Sun Valley - Year-round resort with world-class skiing
Wallace-Historic district and county seat
Wilder
Worley-casino
Firth
 
Coeur d'Alene
Pocatello
Post Falls
Idaho Falls

National Parks, Reserves, Mounuments and Historic sites
City of Rocks National Reserve
Craters of the Moon National Monument
 
California National Historic Trail
City of Rocks National Reserve
Craters of the Moon National Monument
Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
Minidoka National Historic Site
Nez Perce National Historical Park
Oregon National Historic Trail
Yellowstone National Park
National Recreation Areas
 
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area.Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
Sawtooth National Recreation Area
National Wildlife Refuges
Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge
Camas National Wildlife Refuge
Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge
Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge
Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge
Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge
National Conservation Areas

Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area
State Parks
 
Bear lake viewed from Bear Lake State Park.See also: List of Idaho state parks
Bear Lake State Park
Box Canyon State Park
Bruneau Dunes State Park
Castle Rocks State Park
City of Rocks State Park
Coeur d'Alene Parkway
Dworshak State Park
Eagle Island State Park
Farragut State Park
Harriman State Park
Hells Canyon
Hells Gate State Park
Henrys Lake State Park
Heyburn State Park
Lake Cascade State Park
Lake Walcott State Park
Lucky Peak State Park
Malad Gorge State Park
Massacre Rocks State Park
Mary Minerva McCroskey State Park
Niagara Springs State Park
Old Mission State Park
Ponderosa State Park
Priest Lake State Park
Round Lake State Park
Three Island Crossing State Park
Trail of the Coeur d'Alenes
Winchester Lake State Park
Yankee Fork State Park
Education
Colleges and universities
 
Idaho State University in Pocatello.
University of Idaho in Moscow.
Boise State University in Boise.The Idaho State Board of Education oversees three comprehensive universities. The University of Idaho in Moscow was the first university in the state (founded in 1889). A land-grant institution, the UI is the state's flagship university. Idaho State University in Pocatello opened in 1901 as the Academy of Idaho and was granted university status in 1963. Boise State University is the most recent school to attain university status in Idaho, and is primarily geared toward being a commuter school for part-time undergraduate students. The school opened in 1932 as Boise Junior College and became Boise State University in 1974. Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston is the only public, non-university 4 year college in Idaho.

Idaho has three regional community colleges: North Idaho College in Coeur d'Alene; College of Southern Idaho in Twin Falls; and The College of Western Idaho in Nampa, which opened in 2009.

Private institutions in Idaho are Brigham Young University-Idaho in Rexburg, which is affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; The College of Idaho in Caldwell, which still maintains a loose affiliation with the Presbyterian Church; Northwest Nazarene University in Nampa; and New Saint Andrews College in Moscow, of reformed Christian theological background.

Boise State University
Brigham Young University-Idaho
College of Idaho
College of Southern Idaho
Idaho State University
 Lewis-Clark State College
New Saint Andrews College
North Idaho College
Northwest Nazarene University
University of Idaho
 

Sports
Club Sport League
Boise Hawks Baseball Minor League Baseball
Boise State Broncos NCAA Div I FBS - WAC
Idaho Vandals NCAA Div I FBS - WAC
Idaho State Bengals NCAA Div I FCS - Big Sky
Idaho Falls Chukars Baseball Minor League Baseball
Idaho Stampede Basketball NBA Development League
Boise Burn Arena football af2
Idaho Steelheads Ice hockey East Coast Hockey League

Boise is the host to the largest 5 km run for women, the St. Luke's Women's Fitness Celebration.

Official State Emblems
 
 
State Bird: Mountain Bluebird
State Dance: Square Dance
State Fish: Cutthroat Trout
State Flower: Syringa (Syringa vulgaris)
State Fossil: Hagerman Horse (Equus simplicidens)
State Fruit: Huckleberry
State Gem: Idaho star garnet
State Horse: Appaloosa
State Motto: Esto perpetua ("Let it be perpetual")
State Insect: Monarch butterfly
State Raptor: Peregrine falcon
State Song: Here We Have Idaho
State Tree: Western White Pine
State Vegetable: Potato

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